CQUniversity Unit Profile
MEDI12008 Foundations of Radiation Science
Foundations of Radiation Science
All details in this unit profile for MEDI12008 have been officially approved by CQUniversity and represent a learning partnership between the University and you (our student).
The information will not be changed unless absolutely necessary and any change will be clearly indicated by an approved correction included in the profile.
General Information

Overview

This unit will provide you with the foundational science knowledge needed for future study of the safe and effective use of x-ray imaging equipment and production of diagnostic radiography images. You will learn the theoretical concepts of radiation production and control, radiation interactions in matter, and basics of digital radiographic image recording and processing. This learning will be underpinned by a study of core physics concepts. You will learn how and why to limit radiation exposure through the study of radiation bioeffects and best practices in radiation protection.

Details

Career Level: Undergraduate
Unit Level: Level 2
Credit Points: 6
Student Contribution Band: 8
Fraction of Full-Time Student Load: 0.125

Pre-requisites or Co-requisites

Enrolment in CB77

Important note: Students enrolled in a subsequent unit who failed their pre-requisite unit, should drop the subsequent unit before the census date or within 10 working days of Fail grade notification. Students who do not drop the unit in this timeframe cannot later drop the unit without academic and financial liability. See details in the Assessment Policy and Procedure (Higher Education Coursework).

Offerings For Term 2 - 2020

Brisbane
Mackay
Melbourne
Sydney

Attendance Requirements

All on-campus students are expected to attend scheduled classes – in some units, these classes are identified as a mandatory (pass/fail) component and attendance is compulsory. International students, on a student visa, must maintain a full time study load and meet both attendance and academic progress requirements in each study period (satisfactory attendance for International students is defined as maintaining at least an 80% attendance record).

Class and Assessment Overview

Recommended Student Time Commitment

Each 6-credit Undergraduate unit at CQUniversity requires an overall time commitment of an average of 12.5 hours of study per week, making a total of 150 hours for the unit.

Class Timetable

Bundaberg, Cairns, Emerald, Gladstone, Mackay, Rockhampton, Townsville
Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Assessment Overview

1. Online Test
Weighting: 20%
2. Report
Weighting: 30%
3. Online Test
Weighting: 50%

Assessment Grading

This is a graded unit: your overall grade will be calculated from the marks or grades for each assessment task, based on the relative weightings shown in the table above. You must obtain an overall mark for the unit of at least 50%, or an overall grade of ‘pass’ in order to pass the unit. If any ‘pass/fail’ tasks are shown in the table above they must also be completed successfully (‘pass’ grade). You must also meet any minimum mark requirements specified for a particular assessment task, as detailed in the ‘assessment task’ section (note that in some instances, the minimum mark for a task may be greater than 50%). Consult the University’s Grades and Results Policy for more details of interim results and final grades.

Previous Student Feedback

Feedback, Recommendations and Responses

Every unit is reviewed for enhancement each year. At the most recent review, the following staff and student feedback items were identified and recommendations were made.

Feedback from Student feedback and unit coordinator reflection

Feedback

Students were unsure of the volume of responses expected in the written report as there were no word count guidelines.

Recommendation

Review the report template requirements and provide additional clarity of expectations in the guidance document for completing the written report.

Feedback from Unit coordinator reflection.

Feedback

The process of scoring the written report and providing detailed comments was not efficient, resulting in delayed return of marked reports.

Recommendation

Re-build the scoring sheet and feedback documentation process for the written report in order to enable increased efficiency in providing useful feedback.

Feedback from Student feedback and lab instructional team reflections

Feedback

For some student groups, a significant portion of the lab time was spent in interpreting the lab instructions. For labs that were not led by the unit coordinator, there was some variation in that interpretation.

Recommendation

Provide photos and/or brief videos to illustrate equipment set-ups.

Feedback from Unit coordinator reflection

Feedback

While basic concepts of image appearances and terms for describing those appearances were introduced in Week 1, the skill development was not effectively scaffolded during the term. This impacted students' performance in discussing their lab images in the written report.

Recommendation

Provide additional guidance in image viewing and image appearance description through either tutorial activities or instructional videos.

Feedback from Student feedback

Feedback

Students appreciated the lecture recordings, which were comprehensive in scope, clearly presented and provided as multiple short videos each week.

Recommendation

Maintain the mini-lecture format of the lecture videos.

Unit Learning Outcomes
On successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
  1. Discuss the underlying physical principles of and the controls involved in x-ray beam production, emission, interactions in matter and capture at the image receptor
  2. Outline the basic construction and operation of x-ray units and digital radiographic image acquisition systems
  3. Discuss fundamental attributes of radiographic image appearances such as visibility, brightness, contrast, unsharpness, and distortion
  4. Relate the concepts of beam control, differential attenuation, and scatter control to the production and appearances of a projection radiograph
  5. Relate core concepts of bioeffects of low-level ionising radiation and current scientific theories of radiation risk to radiation protection practices in radiography.

This unit supports students in the attainment of the following Competency Standards of the Council on Chiropractic Education Australasia:

1.1 Complies with legal and ethical requirements

  • Adheres to relevant legislation, common law, codes, standards and other policy regulating chiropractic conduct and practice

1.4 Demonstrates professional integrity

  • Applies principles of risk management and quality improvement to practice

3.3 Obtains the results of clinical, laboratory and other diagnostic procedures necessary to inform care

  • Refers for or conducts imaging where clinically indicated

3.5 Critically analyses information available to generate a clinical impression

  • Demonstrates knowledge of diagnostic imaging techniques and procedures, including indications and limitations of available imaging modalities

Alignment of Learning Outcomes, Assessment and Graduate Attributes
N/A Level
Introductory Level
Intermediate Level
Graduate Level
Professional Level
Advanced Level

Alignment of Assessment Tasks to Learning Outcomes

Assessment Tasks Learning Outcomes
1 2 3 4 5
1 - Report - 30%
2 - Online Test - 20%
3 - Online Test - 50%

Alignment of Graduate Attributes to Learning Outcomes

Graduate Attributes Learning Outcomes
1 2 3 4 5
1 - Communication
2 - Problem Solving
3 - Critical Thinking
4 - Information Literacy
5 - Team Work
6 - Information Technology Competence
7 - Cross Cultural Competence
8 - Ethical practice
9 - Social Innovation

Alignment of Assessment Tasks to Graduate Attributes

Assessment Tasks Graduate Attributes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 - Report - 30%
2 - Online Test - 20%
3 - Online Test - 50%
Textbooks and Resources

Textbooks

Prescribed

Radiographic Imaging and Exposure 5 (2017)

Authors: Terri L Fauber
Elsevier
St. Louis St. Louis , Missouri , USA
ISBN: 9780323356244
Binding: Paperback

Additional Textbook Information

Students may purchase the hard copy textbook from the University Bookshop. The e-version is not available from the publisher for distribution in Australia. However, the e-book may be purchased through Amazon's Kindle store.

IT Resources

You will need access to the following IT resources:
  • CQUniversity Student Email
  • Internet
  • Unit Website (Moodle)
Referencing Style

All submissions for this unit must use the referencing style: American Psychological Association 7th Edition (APA 7th edition)

For further information, see the Assessment Tasks.

Teaching Contacts
Caroline Falconi Unit Coordinator
c.falconi@cqu.edu.au
Schedule
Week 1 Begin Date: 13 Jul 2020

Module/Topic

Introduction to the unit and underlying physics
  • Introduction to radiography
  • overview of imaging process
  • Introduction to radiation science
  • properties of radiation
  • energy
  • forces
  • structure of matter

Chapter

Fauber Chapter 1

Events and Submissions/Topic

Tutorial on using learning goals and writing definitions

Week 2 Begin Date: 20 Jul 2020

Module/Topic

X-ray Production

  • Basic electrical concepts
  • X-ray tube construction and operation
  • tube voltage
  • tube current
  • exposure time
  • milliampere-seconds (mAs) setting

Chapter

Fauber Chapter 2

Events and Submissions/Topic

Tutorial on Week 1 content

Week 3 Begin Date: 27 Jul 2020

Module/Topic

    X-ray Production

    • target interactions
    • production of x-rays (2 processes)
    • heat production
    • beam contents (spectrum)

    Chapter

    Fauber Chapter 2

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 2 content

    Week 4 Begin Date: 03 Aug 2020

    Module/Topic

    X-ray Production

    • x-ray quantity and quality
    • expressing beam output
    • effect of tube current on beam output
    • effect of tube voltage on beam output
    • effect of filtration on beam output
    • best practices for extending tube life

    Chapter

    Fauber Chapter 2

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 3 content

    Week 5 Begin Date: 10 Aug 2020

    Module/Topic

    X-ray Beam Attenuation and Transmission

    • beam attenuation
    • beam transmission
    • interactions of x-rays with matter
    • absorption
    • scatter
    • fractional attenuation
    • fractional transmission

    Chapter

    Fauber Chapter 3


    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 4 content


    Vacation Week Begin Date: 17 Aug 2020

    Module/Topic

    Chapter

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Week 6 Begin Date: 24 Aug 2020

    Module/Topic

    Control of the Remnant Beam

    • Factors affecting quantity of attenuation
    • differential attenuation
    • factors affecting differential attenuation
    • subject contrast of the remnant beam

    Chapter

    Fauber Chapter 3


    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 5 content



    Online Test 1 Due: Week 6 Friday (28 Aug 2020) 3:30 pm AEST
    Week 7 Begin Date: 31 Aug 2020

    Module/Topic

    Image appearances and image quality

    • radiographic (image) contrast 
    • brightness
    • visibility
    • contrast resolution
    • accuracy of structural content
    • sharpness
    • spatial resolution
    • distortion
    • contribution of x-ray production and primary beam
    • contribution of the structures being imaged
    • contribution of the imaging set-up

    Chapter

    Fauber Chapter 3

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 6 content

    Week 8 Begin Date: 07 Sep 2020

    Module/Topic

    Scatter and its control

    • factors affecting the magnitude of scatter produced
    • collimation
    • grids
    • air gap technique

    Chapter

    Fauber Chapters 6 & 7

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 7 content

    Week 9 Begin Date: 14 Sep 2020

    Module/Topic

    Digital imaging technology

    • digital image file properties
    • digital image processing
    • image receptor systems - structure and operation
    • image display and viewing
    • display adjustments (windowing, zoom)
    • control of spatial and contrast resolution of digital images
    • exposure index

    Chapter

    Fauber Chapter 4

    Additional readings as posted on unit Moodle site

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 8 content

    Week 10 Begin Date: 21 Sep 2020

    Module/Topic

    Radiation biology

    • dose metrics (exposure, absorbed dose and effective dose)
    • Bioeffects of ionising radiation (deterministic and stochastic effects)
    • Dose response theories

    Chapter

    Additional readings as posted on unit Moodle site

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 9 content


    Radiation Production and Imaging Report Due: Week 10 Monday (21 Sept 2020) 4:00 pm AEST
    Week 11 Begin Date: 28 Sep 2020

    Module/Topic

    Radiation protection

    • ALARA principle
    • legislation and professional responsibilities
    • justification, limitation and optimisation
    • dose optimisation techniques for digital radiography
    • best practices in dose management
    • use of technique charts
    • considerations for paediatric and pregnant patients
    • radiation occupational health and safety

    Chapter

    Fauber Chapters 1 & 8, Appendix C

    Additional readings as posted on unit Moodle site

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 10 content


    Week 12 Begin Date: 05 Oct 2020

    Module/Topic

    • Consolidation and integration of core concepts

    Chapter

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Tutorial on Week 11 content


    Review/Exam Week Begin Date: 12 Oct 2020

    Module/Topic

    Chapter

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Exam Week Begin Date: 19 Oct 2020

    Module/Topic

    Chapter

    Events and Submissions/Topic

    Term Specific Information

    This unit has been developed by a cross-disciplinary team to provide expertise from both the radiographic and chiropractic perspectives. The unit provides the science foundation for your study of radiographic technique in Year 3 of your course and your clinical practice in your Masters study.

    You are provided with a set of learning goals for each week's topics to communicate the breadth and depth of the knowledge and skills you are required to demonstrate in the unit assessments. Lectures are provided as pre-recorded videos via the unit Moodle site. A series of videos of lab experiments illustrate the use of radiographic equipment, beam properties, beam controls, image acquisition, image processing and safe practices. You will have weekly online tutorials to discuss assigned questions on the previous week's learning.

    Tutorials are interactive sessions where your participation enables you to check your understanding of and your ability to apply the week's concepts and for you to build your skills in responding to test questions. Your regular participation strongly supports your success in the unit. While online tutorials will be recorded, these recordings are not intended to replace your active participation in live sessions.

    You are expected to spend on average 10 - 12 hours of time each week in your study activities for this unit. A suggested time budget for your weekly study is:

    • 2 - 3 hours for watching recorded lectures and virtual labs
    • 1 - 1½ hours for completing assigned reading
    • ½ - 1 hour for completing other posted learning activities
    • 2 - 2 ½ hours for creating study notes to meet weekly learning goals using lectures and readings
    • ½ - 1 hour for working on posted tutorial questions in preparation for tutorial
    • 1 hour for participation in tutorial
    • 2 - 3 hours for assignment preparation and/or revision for final examination

    Assessment Tasks

    1 Online Test

    Assessment Title
    Online Test 1

    Task Description

    As you are students in a course that is accredited by your professional body, we must provide evidence that you have core knowledge and skill that underpins your ability to meet the Competency Standards of your profession. This includes knowledge of the underlying science of radiography and its application to safe and effective practice.

    You will write an online test to demonstrate your ability to apply the concepts and use the terminology from Weeks 1 - 4 of the unit. All questions will be based on the posted weekly learning goals for those weeks.



    Question tasks will be of the same types that you will practice in tutorials. These question tasks may include analysis of diagrams, creation of line diagrams to illustrate concepts, explanations of concepts, application of concepts to specific scenarios, definitions and discussions. The Week 1 tutorial provides instruction and practice on how to use learning goals, define terms and analyse test questions. The weekly tutorials from Week 2 onward will provide you practice in analysing questions, formulating responses and assessing the quality of your responses.

    This test is of 90 minutes duration. This time factors in 10 minutes of perusal and planning time and 80 minutes of writing time. The time allowed will provide adequate time to plan and type your answers, plus any potential lag of internet services. The stated due date/time listed below is when the test availability will close in Moodle, so plan to start your test 90 minutes before that time.

    To complete the test, ensure that you have use of a computer (PC or Mac) in good working order with adequate power/charged battery and reliable internet access. Use of a tablet device is not recommended as you will not be able to see all available information on the Moodle quiz screen.

    This is an open book test. It means that during the test you may access your study notes, textbook, the unit Moodle site and/or any website. You may use that content in formulating your responses. However, the time allocated for completing the questions assumes familarity with the unit material. You should not expect to have the time to look up answers to every question. Because this is an open-book test we are not assessing your recall of facts. The weekly learning goals tell you the specific ways that you are expected to integrate and apply concepts from the weekly content. We will practice many of these learning goal tasks in the weekly tutorials.

    Your test responses must be your own work. The rules of academic integrity still apply. You cannot seek assistance or make use of assistance from another person during this test. You may not communicate with any other person during the test (whether verbally, electronically or in writing) for any purpose relating to the test questions or your responses. You may not share the test content with any other person for any reason. At the start of the test you will need to make a declaration that you understand these rules of academic integrity and that you agree to abide by them. Any identified cases of potential collusion will result in a breach of academic integrity case being raised.

    This test must be written at the timetabled date and time. There is no provision for a late submission and no late penalty can be applied. In the absence of an approved extension, you cannot complete this assessment at a later time, and you will receive a mark of zero for the assessment if you have not completed it by the scheduled date and time. If you have an approved extension, you will be assigned a new test date and time as soon as possible after the original test date. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are available at that new assigned date/time. Please see Section 5 of the the University's Assessment Policy and Procedure for details regarding Assessment Management, specifically around assessment extension.


    Assessment Due Date

    Week 6 Friday (28 Aug 2020) 3:30 pm AEST


    Return Date to Students

    Week 8 Friday (11 Sept 2020)


    Weighting
    20%

    Assessment Criteria

    Question responses will be scored on the following criteria:

    • factual correctness of content
    • completeness in answering what was asked
    • depth of explanation
    • relevance of your response in addressing the question that was asked.

    Marks for each question are listed on the Moodle screen. The number of marks are allocated based on the number of key points you are expected to make in answering the question. You should expect to make one key point of fact or logic for each mark. As a guide, a key point typically involves 1 - 2 sentences.


    Referencing Style

    Submission
    Online

    Learning Outcomes Assessed
    • Outline the basic construction and operation of x-ray units and digital radiographic image acquisition systems


    Graduate Attributes
    • Communication

    2 Report

    Assessment Title
    Radiation Production and Imaging Report

    Task Description

    As future chiropractors, you will need to be able to make reasoned selections of technical parameters for the radiographs you produce that factor in your patient as well as the correct operation of your equipment.

    You will create an electronic report that discusses the underlying science behind radiographic appearances and data obtained from virtual lab experiments. You will be provided with a series of videos of experiments using radiographic imaging equipment to measure radiation beams in various circumstances and to image inanimate objects. You will be provided with various images and sets of data associated with these experiments.

    You will then answer a series of questions relating to those virtual labs and the associated data and images. A Word template will be provided on the unit Moodle site to help you structure your submission.

    In addressing the required areas of discussion, you may choose to use resources to support your responses. These may include your text, resources that are provided on the unit Moodle site and/or others that you may find. (Note that lecture slides are visual accompaniment to a spoken presentation, so the slides are not appropriate to use as a standalone resource for this assessment). Academic integrity standards require that you do not plagiarise, so you are required to acknowledge the ideas and words of others using correct referencing technique. Your report must be submitted as a Word or pdf document that can be analysed by Turnitin.

    Note that although you will be working with your classmates to acquire the images for this assessment, this report is to be completed individually. As for all assessments, you are expected to uphold the standards of Academic Integrity. Colluding with other students on a non-group work task is considered a breach of academic integrity.

    The specific questions you must address as well as the format and presentation of your electronic report will be posted on the unit Moodle site.


    Assessment Due Date

    Week 10 Monday (21 Sept 2020) 4:00 pm AEST


    Return Date to Students

    Week 12 Friday (9 Oct 2020)


    Weighting
    30%

    Assessment Criteria

    Your report will be assessed on the following criteria:

    • clarity and completeness of explanations and discussions in answering the required questions
    • factual correctness of statements, explanations and discussions
    • relevance of response content to the question asked
    • correct use of terminology


    Referencing Style

    Submission
    Online

    Learning Outcomes Assessed
    • Discuss the underlying physical principles of and the controls involved in x-ray beam production, emission, interactions in matter and capture at the image receptor
    • Discuss fundamental attributes of radiographic image appearances such as visibility, brightness, contrast, unsharpness, and distortion
    • Relate the concepts of beam control, differential attenuation, and scatter control to the production and appearances of a projection radiograph


    Graduate Attributes
    • Communication
    • Problem Solving
    • Information Technology Competence

    3 Online Test

    Assessment Title
    Final Online Test

    Task Description

    You will write an online test to demonstrate your ability to apply the concepts and use the terminology from the unit. All questions will be based on the posted weekly learning goals. 

    Question tasks will be of the same types that you will practice in tutorials. These question tasks may include analysis of diagrams (including radiographs and photographs), explanations of concepts, application of concepts to specific scenarios, definitions and discussions.

    This test is of 2 hours in duration. This time factors in 15 minutes of perusal and planning time and 105 minutes of writing time. The time allowed will provide adequate time to plan and type your answers, plus any potential lag of internet services.

    To complete the test, ensure that you have use of a computer (PC or Mac) in good working order with adequate power/charged battery and reliable internet access. Use of a tablet device is not recommended as you will not be able to see all available information on the Moodle quiz screen.

    This is an open book test. It means that during the test you may access your study notes, textbook, the unit Moodle site and/or any website. You may use that content in formulating your responses. However, the time allocated for completing the questions assumes familarity with the unit material. You should not expect to have the time to look up answers to every question. Because this is an open-book test we are not assessing your recall of facts. The weekly learning goals tell you the specific ways that you are expected to integrate and apply concepts from the weekly content. We will practice many of these learning goal tasks in the weekly tutorials.

    Your test responses must be your own work. The rules of academic integrity still apply. You cannot seek assistance or make use of assistance from another person during this test. You may not communicate with any other person during the test (whether verbally, electronically or in writing) for any purpose relating to the test questions or your responses. You may not share the test content with any other person for any reason. At the start of the test you will need to make a declaration that you understand these rules of academic integrity and that you agree to abide by them. Any identified cases of potential collusion will result in a breach of academic integrity case being raised.

    This test must be written at the timetabled date and time. There is no provision for a late submission and no late penalty can be applied. In the absence of an approved extension, you cannot complete this assessment at a later time, and you will receive a mark of zero for the assessment if you have not completed it by the scheduled date and time. If you have an approved extension, you will be assigned a new test date and time as soon as possible after the original test date. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are available at that new assigned date/time. Please see Section 5 of the the University's Assessment Policy and Procedure for details regarding Assessment Management, specifically around assessment extension.


    Assessment Due Date

    To be scheduled during the University's Examination Period in Weeks 13/14


    Return Date to Students

    results will be available two weeks after the test date


    Weighting
    50%

    Minimum mark or grade
    50%

    Assessment Criteria

    Question responses will be scored on the following criteria:

    • factual correctness of content
    • completeness in answering what was asked
    • depth of explanation
    • relevance of your response in addressing the question that was asked.

    Marks for each question are listed on the Moodle screen. The number of marks are allocated based on the number of key points you are expected to make in answering the question. You should expect to make one key point of fact or logic for each mark. As a guide, a key point typically involves 1 - 2 sentences.


    Referencing Style

    Submission

    No submission method provided.


    Learning Outcomes Assessed
    • Discuss the underlying physical principles of and the controls involved in x-ray beam production, emission, interactions in matter and capture at the image receptor
    • Outline the basic construction and operation of x-ray units and digital radiographic image acquisition systems
    • Discuss fundamental attributes of radiographic image appearances such as visibility, brightness, contrast, unsharpness, and distortion
    • Relate core concepts of bioeffects of low-level ionising radiation and current scientific theories of radiation risk to radiation protection practices in radiography.


    Graduate Attributes
    • Communication
    • Ethical practice

    Academic Integrity Statement

    As a CQUniversity student you are expected to act honestly in all aspects of your academic work.

    Any assessable work undertaken or submitted for review or assessment must be your own work. Assessable work is any type of work you do to meet the assessment requirements in the unit, including draft work submitted for review and feedback and final work to be assessed.

    When you use the ideas, words or data of others in your assessment, you must thoroughly and clearly acknowledge the source of this information by using the correct referencing style for your unit. Using others’ work without proper acknowledgement may be considered a form of intellectual dishonesty.

    Participating honestly, respectfully, responsibly, and fairly in your university study ensures the CQUniversity qualification you earn will be valued as a true indication of your individual academic achievement and will continue to receive the respect and recognition it deserves.

    As a student, you are responsible for reading and following CQUniversity’s policies, including the Student Academic Integrity Policy and Procedure. This policy sets out CQUniversity’s expectations of you to act with integrity, examples of academic integrity breaches to avoid, the processes used to address alleged breaches of academic integrity, and potential penalties.

    What is a breach of academic integrity?

    A breach of academic integrity includes but is not limited to plagiarism, self-plagiarism, collusion, cheating, contract cheating, and academic misconduct. The Student Academic Integrity Policy and Procedure defines what these terms mean and gives examples.

    Why is academic integrity important?

    A breach of academic integrity may result in one or more penalties, including suspension or even expulsion from the University. It can also have negative implications for student visas and future enrolment at CQUniversity or elsewhere. Students who engage in contract cheating also risk being blackmailed by contract cheating services.

    Where can I get assistance?

    For academic advice and guidance, the Academic Learning Centre (ALC) can support you in becoming confident in completing assessments with integrity and of high standard.

    What can you do to act with integrity?