CQUniversity Unit Profile
MEDS12001 Physics of Ultrasound
Physics of Ultrasound
All details in this unit profile for MEDS12001 have been officially approved by CQUniversity and represent a learning partnership between the University and you (our student).
The information will not be changed unless absolutely necessary and any change will be clearly indicated by an approved correction included in the profile.
Corrections

Unit Profile Correction added on 30-03-20

The end of term examination has now been changed to an alternate form of assessment. Please see your Moodle site for details of the assessment.


General Information

Overview

You will be introduced to the principles of ultrasound physics and instrumentation in this unit.Ultrasound safety, quality assurance and recognition of artifacts will also be covered. The knowledge and skills learnt from this unit are integral to all concurrent and subsequent sonography and echocardiography units and forms the foundation from which you will build your image acquisition, recognition and assessment skills. You will apply your knowledge and skills of physics principles in the laboratory setting using ultrasound equipment.

Details

Career Level: Undergraduate
Unit Level: Level 2
Credit Points: 6
Student Contribution Band: 8
Fraction of Full-Time Student Load: 0.125

Pre-requisites or Co-requisites

Prerequisite MEDI11002 Physics for Health Sciences AND (MEDS11001 Fundamentals of Sonographic Practice OR ECHO11002 Cardiac Structure and Function

Important note: Students enrolled in a subsequent unit who failed their pre-requisite unit, should drop the subsequent unit before the census date or within 10 working days of Fail grade notification. Students who do not drop the unit in this timeframe cannot later drop the unit without academic and financial liability. See details in the Assessment Policy and Procedure (Higher Education Coursework).

Offerings For Term 1 - 2020

Brisbane
Mackay
Melbourne
Perth
Sydney

Attendance Requirements

All on-campus students are expected to attend scheduled classes – in some units, these classes are identified as a mandatory (pass/fail) component and attendance is compulsory. International students, on a student visa, must maintain a full time study load and meet both attendance and academic progress requirements in each study period (satisfactory attendance for International students is defined as maintaining at least an 80% attendance record).

Class and Assessment Overview

Recommended Student Time Commitment

Each 6-credit Undergraduate unit at CQUniversity requires an overall time commitment of an average of 12.5 hours of study per week, making a total of 150 hours for the unit.

Class Timetable

Bundaberg, Cairns, Emerald, Gladstone, Mackay, Rockhampton, Townsville
Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Assessment Overview

1. Online Test
Weighting: 40%
2. Practical Assessment
Weighting: Pass/Fail
3. Examination
Weighting: 60%

Assessment Grading

This is a graded unit: your overall grade will be calculated from the marks or grades for each assessment task, based on the relative weightings shown in the table above. You must obtain an overall mark for the unit of at least 50%, or an overall grade of ‘pass’ in order to pass the unit. If any ‘pass/fail’ tasks are shown in the table above they must also be completed successfully (‘pass’ grade). You must also meet any minimum mark requirements specified for a particular assessment task, as detailed in the ‘assessment task’ section (note that in some instances, the minimum mark for a task may be greater than 50%). Consult the University’s Grades and Results Policy for more details of interim results and final grades.

Previous Student Feedback

Feedback, Recommendations and Responses

Every unit is reviewed for enhancement each year. At the most recent review, the following staff and student feedback items were identified and recommendations were made.

Feedback from Have your say

Feedback

Students found that the ultrasound physics labs were a fantastic way to learn about this unit in a hands on, practical way.They, however, wished the labs started earlier in the term and extended slightly in duration.

Recommendation

The lab schedules will be reviewed.

Feedback from Have your say

Feedback

Students commented that the weekly summary study notes allowed them to revise easily and concentrate on the main concepts they needed to learn.

Recommendation

Will continue to provide weekly study notes to keep the students focused on the main concepts of each topic.

Feedback from Have your say

Feedback

The sample past exam questions and provided answers throughout the term were commented on as being the most useful learning tool by some of the students

Recommendation

Will continue to provide example past exam questions in weekly contents.

Feedback from Have your say

Feedback

Students liked the two revision weeks incorporated into the unit schedule as it allowed them to revise for the online test and for the final examination.

Recommendation

Will continue the same format of weekly contents to include revision weeks in week 6 and 12 to allow students concentrate on their assessment tasks.

Feedback from Have your say

Feedback

The online test as mid term assessment was well received as it provided feedback on students' performance half way through the term.

Recommendation

Will continue with this mid-term assessment.

Feedback from Have your say

Feedback

Echocardiography students had difficulty contextualising some of the physics to their own profession.

Recommendation

Will include more echocardiography related examples in lectures. Will continue with echo specific lab manuals as this year.

Unit Learning Outcomes
On successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
  1. Apply the physical principles of diagnostic ultrasound to practical problems
  2. Evaluate the components and performance of diagnostic ultrasound equipment
  3. Apply knowledge of ultrasound physics and practical skills to acquire optimal ultrasound images, with due regard of safe practices
  4. Discuss the principles of ultrasound techniques, Doppler ultrasound and its application in medical ultrasound including safety issues
  5. Interpret the causes of, and apply problem solving skills to reduce, sources of artifacts on an ultrasound image.

This unit will be one of the core units in the Medical Sonography Course which is externally accredited by the Australian Sonographers Accreditation Registry (ASAR), an external professional regulatory body. Intended learning outcomes have been linked to:

ASAR Required Graduate Competency Outcomes for General Sonography Accreditation Standards 1.2,

Deliver safe, patient centred services- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7

Practice within professional and ethical frameworks- 2, 6 and 7

Contribute to workplace health and safety and quality assurance- 2, and 7

Alignment of Learning Outcomes, Assessment and Graduate Attributes
N/A Level
Introductory Level
Intermediate Level
Graduate Level
Professional Level
Advanced Level

Alignment of Assessment Tasks to Learning Outcomes

Assessment Tasks Learning Outcomes
1 2 3 4 5
1 - Online Test - 40%
2 - Practical Assessment - 0%
3 - Examination - 60%

Alignment of Graduate Attributes to Learning Outcomes

Graduate Attributes Learning Outcomes
1 2 3 4 5
1 - Communication
2 - Problem Solving
3 - Critical Thinking
4 - Information Literacy
5 - Team Work
6 - Information Technology Competence
7 - Cross Cultural Competence
8 - Ethical practice
9 - Social Innovation
10 - Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultures

Alignment of Assessment Tasks to Graduate Attributes

Assessment Tasks Graduate Attributes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 - Online Test - 40%
2 - Practical Assessment - 0%
3 - Examination - 60%
Textbooks and Resources

Textbooks

Prescribed

Sonography Principles and Instruments

Edition: 10th (2019)
Authors: Frederick W. Kremkau
ELSEVIER
St Louis St Louis , Missouri , U.S.A
ISBN: 9780323597081
Binding: eBook
Supplementary

ULTRASOUND, Physics and Technology, HOW, WHY AND WHEN

Edition: 1st (2009)
Authors: Vivien Gibbs, David Cole, Antonio Sassano
CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE ELSEVIER
London London , UK
ISBN: 978-0-7020-3041-3
Binding: eBook

Additional Textbook Information

Students who already have a copy of the 9th edition of the text book by Kremkau, do not require to purchase the 10th edition.

If preferred, paper copies are available for purchase at the CQUni Bookshop here: http://bookshop.cqu.edu.au (search on the Unit code)

IT Resources

You will need access to the following IT resources:
  • CQUniversity Student Email
  • Internet
  • Unit Website (Moodle)
Referencing Style

All submissions for this unit must use the referencing style: Vancouver

For further information, see the Assessment Tasks.

Teaching Contacts
Afrooz Najafzadeh Abriz Unit Coordinator
a.najafzadehabriz@cqu.edu.au
Schedule
Week 1- Sonography Two Principles of Operation. Operating Principle 1 :Pulse Echo Principle and Sound Parameters Begin Date: 09 Mar 2020

Module/Topic

Sonography: Two Principles of Operation.

Back to Basics

Pulse Echo Principle

Sound Parameters

Maths Concepts

Chapter

Sonography Principles and Instruments, Kremkau 10th edition chapter 1, PP: 1-12, chapter 2, PP 13-44

Events and Submissions/Topic

No Zoom tutorial

Week 2- Pulsed Ultrasound and Parameters related to Pulsed Ultrasound Begin Date: 16 Mar 2020

Module/Topic

Pulsed Ultrasound

Pulse Repetition Period and Pulse Repetition Frequency

Pulse duration, Duty Factor Spatial Pulse Length

Bandwidth

Chapter

Kremkau Chapter 2, PP 13-44

Events and Submissions/Topic

Zoom Tutorial Monday 02:00 p.m. AEST

Week 3- Sound interaction with matter Begin Date: 23 Mar 2020

Module/Topic

Sound interaction with matter

Amplitude, Power and Intensity

Attenuation and Absorption

Reflection and Acoustic Impedance

Types of Reflection

Refraction

Chapter

Kremkau Chapter 2, PP 13-44

Ultrasound Physics and Technology, How, Why and When, Gibbs Chapter 4, PP 19-22

Gibbs Chapter 8, PP 45-49

Events and Submissions/Topic

Physics lab one on Thursday:

09:00-11:00 (local time)

11:30-13:30 (local time)

14:00-16:00 (local time)

Week 4- Transducers, Beam Geometry and Instrumentation Begin Date: 30 Mar 2020

Module/Topic

Transducers, Beam Geometry and Instrumentation

Transducer Construction

Beam Geometry

Instrumentation (Operating Principle 1)

Chapter

Kremkau Chapter 3, PP 45-63

Kremkau Chapter 4, PP 73-116

Gibbs Chapter 6, PP 27-37

Events and Submissions/Topic

Zoom Tutorial Monday 02:00 p.m. AEST

Week 5, Image Resolution Begin Date: 06 Apr 2020

Module/Topic

Image Resolution

Lateral Resolution

Axial Resolution

Contrast Resolution

Temporal Resolution

Chapter

Kremkau Chapter 3, PP 63-76

Kremkau Chapter 4, PP 110-116

Gibbs Chapter 7, PP 39-43

Events and Submissions/Topic

Physics lab two on Thursday

09:00-11:00 (local time)

11:30-13:30 (local time)

14:00-16:00 (local time)

Vacation Week Begin Date: 13 Apr 2020

Module/Topic

Break week

Chapter

Events and Submissions/Topic

Week 6- Online Test Begin Date: 20 Apr 2020

Module/Topic

No lectures are delivered this week to allow you to concentrate on the online test.

Chapter

Events and Submissions/Topic

No Zoom tutorial on Monday as access to the online test is available from Monday 20/04/20 to Tuesday 21/04/20.

The online test is accessed using own computers at home.

Access to the online test is available for 10 hours from 09:00-19:00 hours (local time for each campus) on Monday 20/04/20 for CG91 students and 09:00 to 19:00 on Tuesday 21/04/20 for CV69 students.


Online Test Due: Week 6 Tuesday (21 Apr 2020) 7:00 pm AEST
Week 7- Haemodynamics and The Doppler Principle Begin Date: 27 Apr 2020

Module/Topic

Imaging motion and flow with principle 1

Blood flow haemodynamics

The Doppler principle

Colour Doppler

Chapter

Kremkau Chapter 5, PP 138-162

Gibbs Chapter 11, PP 11-79

Events and Submissions/Topic

Zoom Tutorial Monday 02:00 p.m. AEST

Week 8- Doppler Imaging Begin Date: 04 May 2020

Module/Topic

Doppler Imaging

Spectral Doppler

Power Doppler

Chapter

Kremkau Chapter 5, PP 162-189

Gibbs Chapter 11, PP 79-89

Events and Submissions/Topic

No Zoom tutorial

Week 9- Ultrasound Artifacts Begin Date: 11 May 2020

Module/Topic

Ultrasound Artifacts

Propagation

Attenuation

Spectral Doppler Artifacts

Colour Doppler Artifacts

Chapter

Kremkau Chapter 7, PP 202-235

Gibbs Chapter 9, PP 51-61

Events and Submissions/Topic

Zoom Tutorial Monday 02:00 p.m. AEST

Week 10- Ultrasound Bioeffects Begin Date: 18 May 2020

Module/Topic

Safety and Quality Assurance

Performance Measurements

Output Measurements

Ultrasound Bio-effects

Chapter

Kremkau Chapter 8, PP 236-247

Kremkau Chapter 9, PP 249-258

Gibbs Chapter 12, PP 91-99

Gibbs Chapter 13, PP 101-110

Events and Submissions/Topic

Physics lab three on Thursday

09:00-11:00 (local time)

11:30-13:30 (local time)

14:00-16:00 (local time)

Week 11- Contemporary Imaging Begin Date: 25 May 2020

Module/Topic

Contemporary Imaging

Instruments: Imaging Anatomy, Motion, and Flow with Principle 2

Chapter

Kremkau Chapter 4, PP 116-137

Gibbs, Chapter 14, PP 111-119

Kremkau Chapter 6, PP 190-201

Events and Submissions/Topic

Physics lab manual submission due Friday 29/05/20 at 02:00 p.m. AEST


The Laboratory Manual Submission. Due: Week 11 Friday (29 May 2020) 2:00 pm AEST
Week 12- Review and Consolidation Begin Date: 01 Jun 2020

Module/Topic

Review and Consolidation

Chapter

Events and Submissions/Topic

Pre- exam Zoom Tutorial Monday 02:00 p.m. AEST

Exam Week Begin Date: 08 Jun 2020

Module/Topic

Standard Examination

Chapter

Events and Submissions/Topic

Exam Week Begin Date: 15 Jun 2020

Module/Topic

Standard Examination

Chapter

Events and Submissions/Topic

Term Specific Information

Your unit coordinator is Afrooz Najafzadeh Abriz. Afrooz is based in Perth.

The best way to contact Afrooz is by e-mail : a.najafzadehabriz@cqu.edu.au    

This term, the access to the online test is available for two days on Monday 20th of April for general sonography students (CG91) and on Tuesday 21st of April for echocardiography students (CV69).

The prescribed book for the unit is Sonography Principles and Instruments 10th edition by Kremkau. If students have a copy of the previous editions, there is no need to purchase the 10th edition as any new material will be covered in lectures.

Assessment Tasks

1 Online Test

Assessment Title
Online Test

Task Description

To demonstrate the understanding and knowledge of this unit, students are required to complete an online test. This test can be accessed through the assessment tab on Moodle.

The access to the online test will be available in week 6 on Monday 20th of April for general sonography students enrolled in CG91 and on Tuesday 21st of April for echocardiography students enrolled in CV69.

The contents of week 1 to week 5 will be covered in the online test.

The online test will be open from 09:00 to 19:00 hours local times on both days. 

The test is comprised of ten questions worth 10 marks each.

The questions will be combination of short answer and calculation type questions including image recognition questions. Images included will be from lab activities in week 3 and week 5.

Once the test is accessed, it will remain open for 90 minutes, giving the students an average time of 9 minutes per question.

Questions will be drawn from a pool of questions to allow tests to be different for each student. This assessment is to be undertaken as an individual. As with all other university assessment, colluding with other students on non-group work tasks is considered academic misconduct, and may lead to action being taken. Inserting answers from other websites at the time of the online test is considered plagiarism.

Please note: You MUST start the test before 17:30 local time,as the test automatically closes at 19:00 hours.


Assessment Due Date

Week 6 Tuesday (21 Apr 2020) 7:00 pm AEST

The online test is open from 09:00 to 19:00 (local time) on Monday 20th of April for CG91 students and from 09:00 to 19:00 (local time) for CV69 students


Return Date to Students

Week 8 Friday (8 May 2020)

The online test grades will be available on Moodle by Friday 8th of May 2020 at 02:00 p.m. AEST.


Weighting
40%

Minimum mark or grade
50%

Assessment Criteria

Responses will be assessed according to

  • Use of appropriate physics and ultrasound terminology and descriptors as well as grammar, spelling, the relevance of response and competence in addressing all elements of the question.
  • The student's ability to appropriately interpret images/graphs/tables and then to succinctly compose an appropriate response based on their learning from the unit.
  • Explanations supported by correct physics equations when required with correct units described.
  • The student's ability to show all the working out for any calculation question and demonstration of correct methods of using the appropriate formula and use of correct SI unit throughout the calculation.


Referencing Style

Submission
Online

Submission Instructions
Upon completion of the online test, press submit. The answers will be automatically submitted 90 minutes after the online test is opened.

Learning Outcomes Assessed
  • Evaluate the components and performance of diagnostic ultrasound equipment
  • Discuss the principles of ultrasound techniques, Doppler ultrasound and its application in medical ultrasound including safety issues


Graduate Attributes
  • Communication
  • Problem Solving
  • Critical Thinking
  • Information Technology Competence
  • Ethical practice

2 Practical Assessment

Assessment Title
The Laboratory Manual Submission.

Task Description

The physics labs will provide an opportunity for the students to explore the physical principles of ultrasound and develop their knowledge of machine instrumentation and controls under the guidance of a tutor.

Students are responsible for printing their lab manual and bringing to the lab having access to the lab manual on their own electronic devices.

In small groups (4-5 people), students are required to collaboratively perform tasks set out in their laboratory (lab) manuals during the practical laboratory sessions (weeks 3, 5 and 10) and obtain ultrasound images that will assist to answer set questions per task.

During the labs, students will be required to record and store images, and observe the effect of changing machine parameters on the resultant image.

Students will be required to attempts the lab manual questions during the lab sessions. The questions are designed to help students understand the physical properties of ultrasound and how that knowledge is used to inform the practical production of diagnostic medical images.

Students are expected to work in teams to acquire images. Image sharing within lab group members is permitted.

Students are expected to individually submit the completed lab manual by week 11, Friday 29th of May at 14:00 AEST.

Students will be required to upload their completed lab manual answers to the unit Moodle page via the link provided in the assessment block.

It is a highly recommended component of the unit to attend the laboratory practical sessions in order to meet the learning outcomes. Students who fail to attend a lab for any reason are still required to complete the lab manual exercises and submit the lab manual by the due date.

Students are advised to bring a USB stick to labs to save the acquired images. Image sharing amongst group members is allowed.


Assessment Due Date

Week 11 Friday (29 May 2020) 2:00 pm AEST

The completed lab manual should be submitted as a single Word document on Moodle.


Return Date to Students

Week 12 Friday (5 June 2020)

The PASS / FAIL grades will be available on Moodle by Friday 5th of June 2020


Weighting
Pass/Fail

Minimum mark or grade
50%

Assessment Criteria

Students are required to demonstrate their understanding of each lab task by performing the assigned task correctly and answering the assigned question for each task.

Students are required to record and store the required images as per instructions on the lab manual.

The images are to be stored on a USB drive (provided by the student).

Answering the questions in the lab manual can be attempted during the lab session and may be completed in the student's own time, once the lab activities are finished.

Questions should be answered concisely, supported by the acquired images where required. The acquired images should be inserted in the lab manual which should be saved in the Microsoft Word format.

This assessment will be marked as a PASS or FAIL.

At least fifty percent of the lab activities should have been carried out correctly and the designated questions answered correctly for students to obtain a PASS grade. A detailed rubric is available on Moodle.

There is no option of extension or late submission for the lab manual assessment.

Failure to submit the completed lab manual by the due date and time will result in a grade of "FAIL" for the assessment.

Please note the following excerpt from the CQU Assessment Policy and Procedure (Higher Education Coursework), item 4.41: 'Students who fail a single assessment in a pass/fail unit or a pass/fail component in a graded unit will be deemed to have failed that unit, unless the unit profile includes provision for students to re-attempt a failed assessment task and the student passes the re-attempted assessment'.



Referencing Style

Submission
Online

Learning Outcomes Assessed
  • Apply the physical principles of diagnostic ultrasound to practical problems
  • Evaluate the components and performance of diagnostic ultrasound equipment
  • Apply knowledge of ultrasound physics and practical skills to acquire optimal ultrasound images, with due regard of safe practices
  • Interpret the causes of, and apply problem solving skills to reduce, sources of artifacts on an ultrasound image.


Graduate Attributes
  • Communication
  • Problem Solving
  • Critical Thinking
  • Information Technology Competence
  • Ethical practice

Examination

Outline
Complete an invigilated examination

Date
During the examination period, at a CQUniversity examination centre

Weighting
60%

Length
180 minutes

Minimum mark or grade
50

Details
Dictionary - non-electronic, concise, direct translation only (dictionary must not contain any notes or comments).
Closed Book
Academic Integrity Statement

As a CQUniversity student you are expected to act honestly in all aspects of your academic work.

Any assessable work undertaken or submitted for review or assessment must be your own work. Assessable work is any type of work you do to meet the assessment requirements in the unit, including draft work submitted for review and feedback and final work to be assessed.

When you use the ideas, words or data of others in your assessment, you must thoroughly and clearly acknowledge the source of this information by using the correct referencing style for your unit. Using others’ work without proper acknowledgement may be considered a form of intellectual dishonesty.

Participating honestly, respectfully, responsibly, and fairly in your university study ensures the CQUniversity qualification you earn will be valued as a true indication of your individual academic achievement and will continue to receive the respect and recognition it deserves.

As a student, you are responsible for reading and following CQUniversity’s policies, including the Student Academic Integrity Policy and Procedure. This policy sets out CQUniversity’s expectations of you to act with integrity, examples of academic integrity breaches to avoid, the processes used to address alleged breaches of academic integrity, and potential penalties.

What is a breach of academic integrity?

A breach of academic integrity includes but is not limited to plagiarism, self-plagiarism, collusion, cheating, contract cheating, and academic misconduct. The Student Academic Integrity Policy and Procedure defines what these terms mean and gives examples.

Why is academic integrity important?

A breach of academic integrity may result in one or more penalties, including suspension or even expulsion from the University. It can also have negative implications for student visas and future enrolment at CQUniversity or elsewhere. Students who engage in contract cheating also risk being blackmailed by contract cheating services.

Where can I get assistance?

For academic advice and guidance, the Academic Learning Centre (ALC) can support you in becoming confident in completing assessments with integrity and of high standard.

What can you do to act with integrity?